International Law Governance of Autonomous Weapon Systems And The Turn To Ethics

By Dr. Thompson Chengeta,

Faculty of Social Science, University of Southampton

I.  Introduction

The cutting-edge technology of autonomous weapon systems (AWS) – robotic weapons that once activated, are able to make the decision as to who to target or harm without any further human intervention or control[1] – presents several legal, ethical, and security challenges.  There is no agreement among states on how this emerging technology should be governed. Do we need new laws or are existing ones adequate?  If existing laws are inadequate to govern AWS, should the international community turn to ethics to fill the gaps? These are the questions that are answered in this piece.

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The European Commission on the Privacy Shield: All Bark and No Bite?

By: Kimberly A. Houser[*] and W. Gregory Voss[**]

Introduction

Much has been written about the difference in the privacy laws of the European Union and the United States and ideologies behind the two regimes.[1]  One risk of the increasing divergence in views on privacy is the potential halting of data transfers from the European Union to the United States by the European Commission (EC).  As data is a significant driver of the world economy,[2] special care must be taken both to ensure that data is able to cross borders easily, and individuals’ rights to data protection are respected.

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)[3] prohibits the transfer of personal data outside of the European Economic Area (EEA) to countries without “adequate” privacy protections.  As the United States is considered to have insufficient protections, the EC requires that an approved mechanism, such as the Privacy Shield—its agreement with the United States that permits U.S. companies to self-certify that they will meet certain minimum privacy protections[4]—be used for such transfers.  Alternative mechanisms include standard contractual clauses (SCCs).[5]  Suspension of any one approved mechanism may call into question the legitimacy of the others.

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Privacy Breaches and Big Data: Solutions and Suggestions in India’s Context

By: Navreet Kaur[+]

This article discusses the unprecedented rate at which data is growing and the various possibilities of privacy infringements.  It views the problem in the context of a developing nation, India, because India has formed a committee last year to devise and regulate regulations for data protection.  The article also discusses the approaches adopted by various other countries so that India can meet global standard when formulating policies for data protection.  The features of the Data Protection Bill that the committee has recently submitted to the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India are also discussed.

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